Social Psychology & Motivation

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Prof. Dr. Peter M. Gollwitzer

Journal Articles 2014

Journal Articles 2014

  • PDF downloadMaglio, S. J., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen. G. (2014). Emotion and control in the planning of goals. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 620-634
  • PDF downloadBraver, T. S., Krug, M. K., Chiew, K. S., Kool, W., et al., Gollwitzer, P. M., et al. (2014). Mechanisms of motivation-cognition interaction: challenges and opportunities. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14, 443-472
  • PDF downloadOettingen, G., Ahn, J. T., Gollwitzer, P. M., Kappes, A., & Kawada, C. L. K. (2014). Goal projection and giving help. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 54, 204-214
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M. (2014) Weakness of the will: Is a quick fix possible? Motivation and Emotion, 38, 305-322.
  • PDF downloadMartiny-Huenger, T., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2014). Distractor devaluation in a flanker task: Object-specific effects without distractor recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40, 613–625.
  • PDF downloadWieber, F., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2014). Strategic regulation of mimicry effects by implementation intentions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 53, 31-39.
  • PDF downloadWieber, F. ,Sezer, L.A. , & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2014). Asking "why" helps action control by goals but not plans. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 65-78.
  • PDF downloadLongoni, C., Gollwitzer. P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2014). A green paradox: Validating green choices has ironic effects on behavior, cognition, and perception.  Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50, 158-165.

Journal Articles 2013

Journal Articles 2013

  • PDF downloadGawrilow, C., Morgenroth, K., Schultz, R., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Mental contrasting with implementation intentions enhances self-regulation of goal pursuit in schoolchildren at risk for ADHD. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 134–145.
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., Marquardt, M. K., Scherer, M., & Fujita, K. (2013). Identity-goal threats: Engaging in distinct compensatory efforts. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 555-562.
  • PDF downloadKirk, D., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Promoting integrative bargaining: Mental contrasting with implementation intentions. International Journal of Conflict Management, 24, 148-165.
  • PDF downloadSheeran, P., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2013). Nonconscious processes and health. Health Psychology, 32, 460-473.
  • PDF downloadSheeran, P., Harris, P., Vaughan, J., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Gone exercising: Mental contrasting promotes physical activity among overweight, middle-aged, low-SES fishermen. Health Psychology, 32, 802-809.
  • PDF downloadStern, C., Cole, S., Gollwitzer, P. M., Oettingen, G., & Balcetis, E. (2013). Effects of implementation intentions on anxiety, perceived proximity, and motor performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 623-635.
  • PDF downloadThürmer, J. L., McCrea, S. M., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013) Regulating self-defensiveness: If-Then plans prevent claiming and creating performance handicaps. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 712-725.

Journal Articles 2012

Journal Articles 2012

    • PDF downloadAchtziger, A., Bayer, U. C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Committing to implementation intentions: Attention and memory effects for selected situational cues. Motivation and Emotion, 36, 287-300.
    • PDF downloadCohen, A-L., Jaudas, A., Hirschhorn, E., Sobin, Y., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). The specificity of prospective memory costs. Memory, 20, 848-864.
    • PDF downloadNenkov, G. Y., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Pre- versus postdecisional deliberation and goal commitment: The positive effects of defensiveness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 106-121.
    • PDF downloadOettingen, G., Marquardt, M. K.,&  Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Mental contrasting turns positive feedback on creative potential into successful performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 990-996.
    • PDF downloadSchweiger Gallo, I., McCulloch, K. C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Differential effects of various types of implementation intentions on the regulation of disgust. Social Cognition, 30, 1-17.
    • PDF downloadSchweiger Gallo, I., Pfau, F.,&  Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Furnishing hypnotic instructions with implementation intentions enhances hypnotic responsiveness. Consciousness and Cognition, 21, 1023-1030.

PDF downloadWebb, T. L., Schweiger Gallo, I., Miles, E., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2012). Effective regulation of affect: An action control perspective on emotion regulation. European Review of Social Psychology, 23, 143-186.

PDF downloadWebb, T. L., Sheeran, P., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Trötschel, R. (2012). Strategic control over the unhelpful effects of primed social categories and goals.  Journal of Psychology, 220, 187-193

PDF downloadWieber, F., Thürmer, J. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Collective action control by goals and plans: Applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance.American Journal of Psychology, 125, 275-290.

Journal Articles 2011

Journal Articles 2011

  • PDF downloadAdriaanse, M. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., de Ridder, D. T. D., de Wit, J. B. F., & Kroese, F. M. (2011). Breaking habits with implementation intentions: A test of underlying processes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 502-512.
  • PDF downloadDuckworth, A. L., Grant, H., Loew, B., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Self-regulation strategies improve self-discipline in adolescents: Benefits of mental contrasting and implementation intentions. Educational Psychology, 31, 17-26.
  • PDF downloadGawrilow, C., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2011). If-then plans benefit delay of gratification performance in children with and without ADHD. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 442-455.
  • PDF downloadGawrilow, C., Gollwitzer, P. M., &  Oettingen, G. (2011). If-then plans benefit executive functions in children with ADHD. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30, 615-645.
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., Sheeran, P., Trötschel, R., & Webb, T. (2011). Self-regulation of priming effects on behavior. Psychological Science, 22, 901-907.
  • PDF downloadKirk, D., Gollwitzer, P. M., Carnevale, P. J. (2011). Self-regulation in ultimatum bargaining: Goals and plans help accepting unfair but profitable offers. Social Cognition, 29, 528-546.
  • PDF downloadKirk, D., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Mental contrasting promotes integrative bargaining. International Journal of Conflict Management, 22, 324-341.
  • PDF downloadMartiny-Hünger, T., Thürmer, J. L., Issa, M., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Über die Unterstützung reflektiver Verhaltensdeterminanten. Psychologische Rundschau, 62, 179-187.
  • PDF downloadTrötschel, R., Hüffmeier, J., Loschelder, D. D, Schwartz, K., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Perspective taking as a means to overcome motivational barriers in negotiations: When putting oneself into the opponent's shoes helps to walk toward agreements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 771-790.
  • PDF downloadWieber, F., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Seebaß, G. (2011). Limits of intentionality. Social Psychology, 42, 4-8.
  • PDF downloadWieber, F., von Suchodoletz, A., Heikamp, T., Trommsdorff, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). If-ihen planning helps school-aged children to ignore attractive distractions. Social Psychology, 42, 39-47.

Journal Articles 2010

Journal Articles 2010

  • PDF downloadAdriaanse, M. A., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., Hennes, E. P., de Ridder, D. T. D., & de Wit, J. B. F. (2010). When planning is not enough: Fighting unhealthy snacking habits by mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 1277-1293.
  • PDF downloadBayer, U. C., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Achtziger, A. (2010). Staying on track: Planned goal striving is protected from disruptive internal states. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 505–514.
  • PDF downloadMendoza, S. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Amodio, D. M. (2010). Reducing the expression of implicit stereotypes: Reflexive control through implementation intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 512-523.
  • PDF downloadStadler, G., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Intervention effects of information and self-regulation on eating fruits and vegetables over two years. Health Psychology, 29, 274-283.
  • PDF downloadParks-Stamm, E. J., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Making sense of one’s actions in an explanatory vacuum: The interpretation of nonconscious goal striving. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 531–542.
  • PDF downloadParks-Stamm, E. J., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2010). Implementation intentions and test anxiety: Shielding academic performance from distraction. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 30-33.
  • PDF downloadWieber, F., Odenthal, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Self-efficacy feelings moderate implementation intention effects. Self and Identity, 9, 177-194.

Journal Articles 2009

Journal Articles 2009

  • PDF downloadAchtziger, A., Fehr, T., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Rockstroh, B. (2009). Strategies of intention formation are reflected in continuous MEG activity. Social Neuroscience, 4, 11-27.
  • PDF downloadBayer, U. C., Achtziger, A., Gollwitzer, P. M. & Moskowitz, G. (2009). Responding to subliminal cues: Do if-then plans cause action preparation and initiation without conscious intent? Social Cognition, 27, 183-201.
  • PDF downloadGilbert, S., Gollwitzer, P. M., Cohen, A-L., Oettingen, G., & Burgess, P. W. (2009). Separable brain systems supporting cued versus self-initiated realization of delayed intentions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 905-15.
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P.M. (2009). La Ténacité Flexible dans la Poursuite des Buts Personnels [Flexible tenacity in personal goal pursuit]. Revue québécoise de psychologie, 30, 31-45.
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2009). Self-regulation of consumer decision making and behavior: The role of implementation intentions. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19, 593-607.
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., Sheeran, P., Michalski, V., & Seifert, A. E. (2009). When intentions go public: Does social reality widen the intention-behavior gap? Psychological Science, 20, 612-618.
  • PDF downloadOettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Embodied goal pursuit. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 1210–1213.
  • PDF downloadSchweiger Gallo, I., Keil, A., McCulloch, K. C., Rockstroh, B., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Strategic automation of emotion regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 11-31.
  • PDF downloadSchweiger Gallo, I., Miguel, J., Rodriguezmonter, M., Alvaro, J., Gollwitzer, P.M. (2009). Efectos de las intenciones sobre la salud (Effects of implementation intentions on health interventions). Revista de Psicología Social, 24, 413-426.
  • PDF downloadStadler, G., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Physical activity in women. Effects of a self-regulation intervention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36, 29-34.
  • PDF downloadSuchodoletz, A. v., Trommsdorff, G., Heikamp, T., Wieber, F., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Transition to school: The role of kindergarten children's behavior regulation. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 561-566.

Journal Articles 2008

Journal Articles 2008

  • PDF downloadAchtziger, A., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2008). Implementation intentions and shielding goal striving from unwanted thoughts and feelings. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 381-393.
  • PDF downloadCohen, A-L., Jaudas, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). Number of cues influences the cost of remembering to remember.  Memory & Cognition, 36, 149-156.
  • PDF downloadCohen, A.-L., Bayer, U. C., Jaudas, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). Self-regulatory strategy and executive control: Implementation intentions modulate task switching and Simon task performance. Psychological Research, 72, 12-26.
  • PDF downloadGawrilow, C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). Implementation intentions facilitate response inhibition in ADHD children. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 261-280.
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2008). The question-behavior effect from an action control perspective. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 18, 107-110.
  • PDF downloadHenderson, M. D., de Liver, Y., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). The effects of implemental mindset on attitude strength. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 396-411.

Journal Articles 2007

Journal Articles 2007

  • PDF downloadBayer, C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2007). Boosting scholastic test scores by willpower: The role of implementation intentions. Self and Identity, 6, 1-19.
  • PDF downloadFujita, K., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2007). Mindsets and preconscious open-mindedness to incidental information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 48-61.
  • PDF downloadHenderson, M., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2007). Implementation intentions and disengagement from a failing course of action. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20, 81-102.
  • PDF downloadParks-Stamm, E., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2007). Action control by implementation intentions: Effective cue detection and efficient response initiation. Social Cognition, 25, 248-266.
  • PDF downloadPaul, I., Gawrilow, C., Zech, F., Gollwitzer, P. M., Rockstroh, B., Odenthal, G., Kratzer, W., & Wienbruch, C. (2007). If-then planning modulates the P300 in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuro Report, 18, 653-657.
  • PDF downloadPerkins, M. B., Jensen, P. S., Jaccard, J., Gollwitzer, P. M., Oettingen, G., Pappadopulos, E., & Hoagwood, K. E. (2007). Applying theory-driven approaches to understanding and modifying clinicians' behavior: What do we know? Psychiatric Services, 58, 342-348.
  • PDF downloadSchweiger Gallo, I., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2007). Implementation intentions: A look back at fifteen years of progress. Psicothema, 19, 37-42.
  • PDF downloadSchweiger Gallo, I., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2007). Implementation intentions: Control of fear despite cognitive load. Psicothema, 19, 280-285.
  • PDF downloadTrötschel, R., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2007). Implementation intentions and the willful pursuit of prosocial goals in negotiations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 579-598.

Journal Articles 2006

Journal Articles 2006

  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M. (2006). Open questions in implementation intention research. Social Psychological Review, 8, 14-18.
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69-119.
  • PDF downloadOettingen, G., Grant, H., Smith, P. K., Skinner, M., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2006). Nonconscious goal pursuit: Acting in an explanatory vacuum. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 668-675.

Journal Articles 2005

Journal Articles 2005

  • PDF downloadBayer, U. C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2005). Mindset effects on information search in self-evaluation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 313-327.
  • PDF downloadSheeran, P., Webb, T. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2005). The interplay between goal intentions and implementation intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 87-98.

Journal Articles 2004

Journal Articles 2004

  • PDF downloadAarts, H., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Hassin, R. (2004). Goal contagion: Perceiving is for pursuing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 23-37.
  • PDF downloadFreitas, A. L., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Trope, Y. (2004). The influence of abstract and concrete mindsets on anticipating and guiding others' self-regulatory efforts. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 739-752.
  • PDF downloadKawada, C., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2004). The projection of implicit and explicit goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 545-559.

Journal Articles 2003

Journal Articles 2003

  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M. (2003). Why we thought that action mindsets affect illusions of control. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 259-267.

Journal Articles 2002

Journal Articles 2002

  • PDF downloadOettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2002). Self-regulation and goal pursuit: Turning hope thoughts into behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 304-307.

Journal Articles 2001

Journal Articles 2001

  • PDF downloadBargh, J. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., Chai, A. L., Barndollar, K., & Trötschel, R. (2001). Automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1014-1027.
  • PDF downloadBrandstaetter, V., Lengfelder, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2001). Implementation intentions and efficient action initiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 946-960.
  • PDF downloadLengfelder, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2001). Reflective and reflexive action control in frontal lobe patients. Neuropsychology, 15, 80-100.

Journal Articles 2000

Journal Articles 2000

  • Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2000). Das Setzen und Verwirklichen von Zielen. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 208, 406-430.
  • PDF downloadOettingen, G., Hoenig, G, & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2000). Effective self-regulation of goal attainment. International Journal of Educational Research, 33, 705-732.

Journal Articles 1999

Journal Articles 1999

  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54, 493-503.
  • PDF downloadMoskowitz, G. B., Gollwitzer, P. M., Wasel, W., & Schaal, B. (1999). Preconscious control of stereotype activation through chronic egalitarian goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 167-184.

Journal Articles 1998

Journal Articles 1998

  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., & Schaal, B. (1998). Metacognition in action: The importance of implementation intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 124-136.
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (1998). The emergence and implementation of health goals. Psychology and Health, 13, 687-715.

Journal Articles 1997

Journal Articles 1997

  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., & Brandstaetter, V. (1997). Implementation intentions and effective goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 186-199.
  • PDF downloadWasel, W., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1997). Willentliche Kontrolle der "automatischen" Stereotypaktivierung: Die Rolle subliminaler vs. supraliminaler Stimulusdarbietung. Sprache und Kognition, 16, 198-210.

Journal Articles 1996

Journal Articles 1996

  • PDF downloadBrunstein, J. C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1996). Effects of failure on subsequent performance: The importance of self-defining goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 395-407.

Journal Articles 1995

Journal Articles 1995

  • PDF downloadTaylor, S. E., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1995). Effects of mindset on positive illusions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 213-226.

Journal Articles 1994

Journal Articles 1994

  • PDF downloadBrandstaetter, V., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1994) Research on motivation: A review of the Eighties and early Nineties. German Journal of Psychology, 18, 181-232.

Journal Articles 1993

Journal Articles 1993

  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M. (1993). Goal achievement: The role of intentions. European Review of Social Psychology, 4, 141-185.

Journal Articles 1990

Journal Articles 1990

  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., Heckhausen, H., & Ratajczak, H. (1990). From weighing to willing: Approaching a change decision through pre- or postdecisional mentation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 45, 41-65.
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., Heckhausen, H., & Steller, B. (1990). Deliberative vs. implemental mind-sets: Cognitive tuning toward congruous thoughts and information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1119-1127.

Journal Articles 1989

Journal Articles 1989

  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., & Kinney, R. F. (1989). Effects of deliberative and implemental mind-sets on the illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 531-542.

Journal Articles 1987

Journal Articles 1987

  • PDF downloadBeckmann, J., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1987). Deliberative versus implemental states of mind: The issue of impartiality in pre- and postdecisional information processing. Social Cognition, 5, 259-279.
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., & Wicklund, R. A. (1987). Fusing apples and oranges: A rejoinder to Carver & Scheier and to Fenigstein. Journal of Personality, 55, 555-561.
  • PDF downloadHeckhausen, H., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1987). Thought contents and cognitive functioning in motivational vs. volitional states of mind. Motivation and Emotion, 11, 101-120.
  • PDF downloadWicklund, R. A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1987). The fallacy of the private-public self-focus distinction. Journal of Personality, 55, 491-523.

Journal Articles 1985

Journal Articles 1985

  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., & Wicklund, R. A. (1985). Self-symbolizing and the neglect of others' perspectives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 702-715.

Journal Articles 1982

Journal Articles 1982

  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., Earle, W. B., & Stephan, W. G. (1982). Affect as a determinant of egotism: Residual excitation and performance attributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 702-709.
  • PDF downloadGollwitzer, P. M., Wicklund, R. A., & Hilton, J. L. (1982). Admission of failure and symbolic self-completion: Extending Lewinian theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 358-371.

Journal Articles 1981

Journal Articles 1981

  • PDF downloadArcher, R. L., Diaz-Loving, R., Gollwitzer, P. M., Davis, M. H., & Foushee, H. C. (1981). The role of dispositional empathy and social evaluation in the empathic mediation of helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 786-796.
  • PDF downloadRunge, T. E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P. M., Helmreich, R. K., & Spence, J. T. (1981). Cross-cultural stability of masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 12, 142-162.
  • PDF downloadStephan, W. G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1981). Affect as a mediator of attributional egotism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 443-458.
  • PDF downloadWicklund, R. A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1981). Symbolic self-completion, attempted influence and self-deprecation. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 2, 89-114.

Journal Articles 1980

Journal Articles 1980

  • PDF downloadWicklund, R. A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1980). Symbolische Selbstergaenzung. Psychologie Heute, 7, 56-63.